When reading history, it is interesting to know where exactly the places mentioned are today. If one is reading history in a language that no longer exists in the region studied, then the task is much harder.
One such case is the Arabic names for towns and cities in the Iberian peninsula, in what is now Spain and Portugal. For eight centuries, this area was under Arab rule, and known by the name al-Andalus الأندلس. Many chronicles and history books have been written by the Arab speaking inhabitants of Iberia.
In this article, I try to provide a list of Arabic and Spanish names of the towns and cities, so it is easy to cross reference those for anyone who is studying the region and its history.
I tried to put some background information on the place, such as the etymology of the name, famous people from that place, and the like.
Not all names are of Arabic origin. Some are Roman or Gothic modified in Arabic, with the current Spanish name derived from the Arabic. Others are native Arabic. I try to explain what the meaning of the Arabic name is.
There are still some names that I could not track down. If you know, please contact me.
|Arabic Name||Spanish Name||Comments|
|أبو القرق البرقوق||Villa de Alburquerque||There are two theories: The first it that the name is derived from Abu al-Qurq ("The place with cork [oak groves]"). The presence of the second 'r' supports this. This is what many Spanish sites on that town say. The other is that it is derived from al-Barquq ("The Prunes"). The presence of the first 'r' supports this. There are also claims that the name is Latin, from Alba Querqus, meaning 'white oak'. The presence of a first 'r' supports this. Afonso de Albuquerque(d. 1515 C.E.) the Portuguese admiral, imperialist and statesman is named after thistown. In the USA, the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico was named in 1706 by Francisco Cuervo y Valdés after the viceroy of New Spain, Fernandez de la Cueva, Duque de Alburquerque. In the 1800s, the first 'r' was dropped from the name.|
|نهر أبرة||Ebro River|
|أندرش||Andarax||Near Almeria. الأندرشي أبو عبد الله Abu Abdullah al-Andarashi (544 - 621 A.H) , a reknown Hadith narrator, is from this place. So is, Ibn Ayyash al-Andarashi إبن عياش الأندرشي. The castle called Laujar de Andarax was the seat of the short lived Morisco king Aben Humeya (Don Fernando de Valor d. 1569 C.E.) who led the uprising of Alpujarras.|
|أبذة||Úbeda||Ubeda was started by Abdul Rahman II, and completed by his son Muhammad. It was taken by the Spaniards after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 609 A.H.|
|أقلش أقليش||Ucles||In 1108 CE, 501 A.H., the Almoravids won a decisive victory against Alfonso VI at this place. Alfonso's son was killed in the battle, and soon after, Alfonso himself died of grief.|
|أليط لييط||Aledo||This was a fort in East Andalusia, where in 1088 C.E. the Almoravids tried to take it with an alliance of Andalusian Taifa kings. After four months of siege, the Moorish alliance disintegrated, and the siege was lifted. This incident caused Yusuf Ibn Tashufin, king of Almoravids to invade Andalusia later and force its divided Taifa kings to unite under him.|
|أستجة||Ecija||This fort was called Astiga from Roman times. It had a large population of Mozarabs (مستعربين, Muslims from Spanish ancestry), and hence was under the control of Omar Ibn Hafsun عمر بن حفصون in the third century A.H. Abdul Rahman al-Nasir عبد الرحمن الناصر sent his slave-commander Badr بدر and took this fort in the year 300 A.H. Its fortification and Roman bridge were destroyed by Badr.|
|إلبيرة||Elvira||Elvira was intended to be the center of the surrounding area, but because of the repeated rebellions, its inhabitants left and settled in nearby Granada. Many people hail from Elvira, including Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Mas'ud al-Ilbiri أبو اسحق إبراهيم بن مسعود الإلبيري b. 985 - d. 1067 C.E., who wrote a poem against Samuel Nagrela إبن النغرلة, the Jewish vizier of Ibn Habbus إبن حبوس the Berber ruler. Also, the famous poet, أبو القاسم خلف بن فرج الإلبيري السيمسر Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn Faraj al-Ilbiri al-Sumaiser d. 484 A.H./ 1091 C.E. whose poems were critical of many his times. Many more from Elvira are known.|
|أركش||Arcos de la Frontera||In 1264 C.E., the Muslim population of Arcos were exiled during the reign of Alfonso X, "El Sabio" (the wise)|
|الأرك||Alarcos||A famous battle was fought at Alarcos in 1195 C.E. ending with an Almohad victory over the forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile|
|الأزهار||Costa del Azahar||"Coast of the orange blossom". Azhar is Arabic for blossom, not specifically orange.|
|أشبيلية||Sevilla||A large city today, just like it was in the days of Arab rule. It was a center of learning and trade.|
|أشطبونة||Estepona||Some families in North Morocco still carry the family name الشطبوني|
|أنيشة أنيجة||Atienza||A battle was fought in 634 A.H./1236 C.E. in this place near Valencia.|
|أوريولة||Orihuela||Al Himyari says that the etymology of this is Latin, meaning "golden" (Aurum = Gold, Auriola). In 713 C.E. this city saw a treaty of surrender between the Muslim commander Abdul Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusair and the Visigoth prince of Murcia, Teodomir that preserved religious freedom for Christians and Jews under Muslim rule.|
|باجة الزيت، باجة||Beja||Many famous people hail form this town, including Abu al-Walid al-Baji أبو الوليد الباجي|
|ببشتر||Bobastro||This was the stronghold of Omar Ibn Hafsun عمر بن حفصون (d. 305 A.H.), a Muladi rebel against Umayyad rule. Its ruin still show a Mozarab مستعرب church inside the fort.|
|البركة||Alberca||Means "The pond"|
|البيضاء||Albelda||Means: "The white". Takes its name form the gypsum-white river cliffs.|
|البحيرة||Albufera||Means "The Lake" in Arabic.|
|البرج||Alborg||Means: The Tower|
|البحيرة||Albufera||Means: the lake.|
|بني ؟||Benevites||All the names starting with "Beni" means "sons of" or "descendants of", often referring to a tribe or clan.|
|بني قاسم||Benicasim||A municipality in Valencia where an International Festival for Music is held.|
|بني المدينة||Benalmadena||In this city, the famous physician, botanist, herbalist, and pharmacist Ibn al Baytar إبن البيطار was born in 1197 C.E.|
|برشانة||Purchena ?||This was a very secure and fortified citadel at the confluence of two rivers. Aben Humeya (1520-1569), leader of the Alpujarras uprising held a sporting event at this place.|
|بسطة||Baza||From here, أبو الحسن على بن محمد بن شفيع البسطى who was a poet describing his town.|
|البشرات||Alpujarras||This was one of the last hold outs of the Muslim Moors after the fall of the city of Granada in 1492, and saw a revolt by them.|
|بطليوس||Badajoz||Founded in 875 C.E by Abdul Rahman Ibn Marwan Al-Jiliqi عبد الرحمن بن مروان الجليقي (d. 889 C.E.). From it, al-Batlayawsi البطليوسي a famed philosopher.|
|بلد الوليد||Valladolid||Balad means many things, such as city, town, place. al-Walid is an Umayyad name. So Valladolid means City of al-Walid.|
|بياسة||Baeza||Many famous people are known as al-Bayyasi, such as Abu Zakareyya Yahiya ibn Ismail al-Bayasi أبو زكريا يحيى بن إسماعيل البياسي (d. 590 A.H.) who was a court physician for Salah al-Din (Saladin), as well as a mathematician, and musician. Died in Damascus. There is also the historian and man of literature, Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Ansari al-Bayyasi أبو الحجاج يوسف بن محمد البياسي الأنصاري (d. 653 A.H.) who settled in Tunisia.|
|ربض البيازين||Albaicin||Historical neighborhood in Granada on high ground (Ribad).|
|نهر التاجة||Tajo River|
|تاكرنا||Tacarona||A center settled by berbers, who later started a rebellion.|
|ترجالة، ترجيلة||Trujillo||The physician, Abu Jafar Ibn Harun Al-Tirjali, who was the educator of both Ibn Bajah and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), is from Trujillo|
|تدمير||Tudmer||Named after Theodomir, Visigothic count at the time of the Arab conquest.|
|تطيلة||Tudela||Built by al-Hakam. In the west, Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish traveller is the most famous person from this city. However, there are more famous people from Tudela in the Arabic literature. Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abdullah al-A'ma al-Qaisi al-Tutaili أبو العباس أحمد بن عبد الله بن أبي هريرة القيسي الأعمى التطيلي was a famous blind poet called "The Greater Tudelan". He died in 525 A.H. when he was only 40 years old. There is another Tudelan poet called al-Tutaili al-Asghar أبوإسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد التطيلي الأصغر ("The Lesser Tudelan").|
|تيروال||Teruel||A recent population study of post-Reconquista Spain was done on Teruel, Baguena and Barbaguena by Professor Mary Halavais of Sonoma University|
|جبل طارق||Gibraltar||Jabal Tariq = Mountain of Tariq. Named after Tariq Ibn Ziyad, the berber commander who conquered Iberia in 711 C.E.|
|جرندة||Gerona, Girona||This was a center of Jewish learning|
|الجزر الخالدات||Canary Islands|
|الجزيرة الخضراء||Algeciras||Means "The Green Island"|
|جيان||Jaen||Many people with the title الجياني al-Jayyani come from here.|
|جزيرة شقر||Alcira||Means: Island of Shuqr|
|حصن الفرج||San Juan de Aznalfarache|
|حصن الحنش||Alange||Literally means: Fort of The Snake. However, there was one Hanash al-San'ani حنش الصنعاني from the second generation of Muslims who accompanied Musa Ibn Nusair موسى بن نصير to Andalus, established the Great Mosque there, and died in Saragossa. Perhaps this place is named after him. Alange was the base of Abdul Rahman Ibn Marwan al-Jiliqi عبد الرحمن بن مروان الجليقي a descendant of Gothic nobles who led a rebellion of muwallads against the Umayyad rulers of Cordova. He went on to found Badajoz.|
|الخندق||Alhándega||Means: The trench|
|دانية||Denia||Abu Amr al-Dani أبو عمرو الداني was a famous scholar of Quran orthography and recitations.|
|دروقة||Daroca||Daroca was a center of Jewish learning in Muslim Andalus. The castle in it still exists today.|
|رندة||Ronda||From this place, hails Abu al-Baqa' al-Rondi أبو البقاء الرندي (d. 684 A.H.) His famous poem (in Arabic and English) lamenting the rapid fall of Muslim cities to the Crusading kings of Spain is one of the most well known and powerful pieces of poetry from that era. Another person is Akhyal al-Rondi أخيل بن إدريس الرندي who was a poet, author, secretary, judge and faqih d. 560 A.H. Other Rondans are Ibn al-Hakeem إبن الحكيم (d. 708 A.H.) and Ibn Abbad إبن عباد (d. 792 A.H.)|
|روطة||Rueda de Jalón|
|الزلاقة||Sagrajas||The battle of Sagrajas in 1086 C.E. was a crushing defeat of Alfonso by the Moorish alliance under Yusuf ibn Tashufin.|
|سهلة بني رزين||Albarracin|
|سرقسطة||Zaragoza||From here, Abu al-Tahir al-Saraqustiأبو الطاهر محمد بن يوسف التميمي المازني السرقسطي poet and linguist, d. 428 A.H.|
|سمورة||Zamora||al-Mansur المنصور بن أبي عامر expanded his rule north to the extent that he recaptured Zamora.|
|شذونة||Medina Sidonia||This city south west of Seville lends its name to the noble house of Medina Sidonia. The founder of this house is Alonso de Guzman, who had a quarrel with Alfonso X (El Sabio), and left around 1282 C.E. to serve the Muslim Abu Yusuf Ya'qub king of the Almohads. It is interesting that the chronicler of this house later had to be apologetic for this act.|
|شريش||Jerez de la Frontera||There are many person with the name al-Sharishi الشريشي|
|الشرقية||Axarquia||Means "of the east"|
|شريشة||Jerez de los Caballeros|
|شلب||Silves||The poetess Mariam al-Shilbia مريم الشلبية (d. circa 400 A.H.) and al-Munakhal al-Shilbi المنخل الشلبي (d. 568 A.H) who was a poet at the Almohad court. The heterodox muwallad mystic, Ibn Qasi إبن قسي who rebelled against Almoravids is from here too.|
|شنترين||Santarem||The famous poet and linguist Ibn Bassam al-Shantarini إبن بسام الشنتريني (d. 542 A.H.) author of a huge anthology of Andalusi poetry, and Ibn Sarah إبن سارة (d. 517 A.H.)|
|شلمنقة||Salamanca||See طلمنكة below.|
|شاطبة||Jativa||Jativa surrendered to the Crusading forces in 1244 C.E. The treaty of surrender survives till today, and is unique in being written in both Latin and Arabic. Robert I. Burns has written an article on this interesting document. There are many famed scholars and mystics by the name al-Shatibi الشاطبي. At least two of them settled in Egypt: a. The mystic whom a district in the city of Alexandria is named after, where his grave lies, b. al-Imam Abu Muhammad al-Qasim ibn Ferro al-Ru'ani al-Shatibi الإمام أبو محمد القاسم بن فيره الرعيني الشاطبي(d. 590 A.H.) a scholar in Quranic orthography and reading, who, although blind from childhood, travelled and taughtin the college of Darb Molokheya that al-Qadi al-Fadil القاضي الفاضلfounded in Cairo. c. Ibn Suraqa al-Shatibi إبن سراقة الشاطبي (d. 663 A.H.) who settled in Cairo. There is also Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Shatibi al-Lakhmi al-Ghirnati أبو إسحق إبراهيم بن محمد الشاطبي اللخمي الغرناطي (d. 790 A.H.) author of al-I'tisam الإعتصام, a famous book in Usul al-Fiqh (Juristic Principles).|
|شقندة||Segunda||There are a few people with the name الشقندي, most famous of which is Ismail Ibn Muhammad Al-Shequndi إسماعيل بن محمد الشقندي (d. 269 A.H.) who wrote a famous treatise on Al-Andalus, and how it has the edge over the Maghreb.|
|شقوبية||Segovia||One interesting person from Segovia is Ice de Gebir|
|شنتمرية||Santa Maria||There are two Santa Marias. One in the east, and another in the West. The first is known as شنتمرية الشرق the second is شنتمرية الرزين also known as شنتمرية الغرب (Santa Maria of the West). Several people are form these Santa Marias, including Ibn Siraj al-Shantamari (d. 508 A.H.) إبن سراج الشنتمري, Jafar al-Shantamari (d. 547 A.H.) جعفر الشنتمري and al-A'lam al-Shantamari (d. 476 A.H.) الأعلم الشنتمري|
|شنت ياقوب||Santiago de Compostella||Santiago is supposed to be the burial place of St. Jacob (James) the disciple of Jesus. Many legends have been woven around his body being miraclously brought in ship to this place, to some peasant seeing a star in the field, to St. James leading the charge against the Moors. All this lead to him getting the title Santiago Matamorros (Moor slayer), and being the patron saint of the Reconquista. The Arabic name for this city is closer to the original name of the saint (Yaqub). Although al-Mansur المنصور بن أبي عامر conquered this city, but left the church and tomb untouched and ordered their protection out of respect for the legend.|
|شنت أشتبن شنت إشطيبن||Sant Estevan?||Arabic name for Saint Stephen|
|شنيل||Genil||This is the name of a river|
|شلوبينية||Salobreña||A town east of Almunecar. Some sources cite it as the ancestral home of Abu Omar Ibn Muhammad Ali al-Shalobin أبو علي عمر بن محمد الشلوبين (b. 562 - d. 645 A.H.) a famed linguist and grammarian, and expert in the Arabic language. His name is sometimes al-Shalobin الشلوبين (without the nisba -i at the end of the word), and less often in others, الشلوبيني al-Shalobini. His student Ibn Sa'id in Al Mughrib إبن سعيد المغربي في المغرب في حلي المغرب says that he is indeed from that small town. Other sources, such as that of Ibn Khalikan in his Wafayat إبن خلكان في وفيات الأعيان and others who copied from him, such as al-Dhahabi in Tarikh Al-Islam الذهبي في تاريخ الإسلام, says that this name is not after a place, but rather a description, meaning "Blue-eyed and Blonde" in Spanish. Abdul Malik Al-Marrakoshi عبد الملك المراكشي في الذيل و التكملة mentions that another student Abu Muhammad Al Harrar ابو محمد الحرار specifically asked him whether his name is after the town, or the "Blue-eyed Blonde". His reply was that his father was Blond and Blue Eyed, and worked as a baker.|
|شقورة||Segura||Abu al-Hassan al-Shaguri أبو الحسن الشقوري a famous hadith narrator is from here. Also see فرغليط below, where two prominent people also have the title Shaguri.|
|صخرة بلاي||Covadonga||Meaning: 'Rock of Pelayo' in Arabic.|
|غرناطة||Granada||Last major city under the rule of the Moors. The name means Pomegranate.|
|الغرب||Algarve||This area was the west of the Iberian peninsula, and therefore known by that name.|
|طرف الغرب||Trafalgar||This is the place where Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the combined fleets of France and Spain, ensuring British supermacy of the seas for a century. For more on the etymology of Trafalgar, I have written a separate detailed article.|
|فرغليط||ِArgelita ?||Village close to Segura, where Ibn Abi al-Khisal al-Ghafiqi was born إبن أبي الخصال الغافقي in 465 A.H, d. 540 A.H. Also, Ali ibn Sulaiman al-Muradi علي بن سليمان المرادي a faqih in the Shaf'i juristic school d. 544 A.H in Aleppo.|
|فحص البلوط||Los Pedroches||"Plain of the Oaks", or "Acorns". Those hailing from it are called al-Balluti البلوطي such as al-Munthir ibn Said القاضي المنذر بن سعيد البلوطي. Also, Abu Hafs Omar al-Balluti أبو حفص عمر البلوطي, the leader of the Ribad exiles from 202 A.H. who was ruler of the island of Crete.|
|الفرنتيرة||Frontera||This was the territory between the Christians and Muslims, with cities and forts often changing hands several times in the conflict.|
|القنطرة||Alcantara||This word is Arabic for "bridge".|
|القبة||Alcove||Means: the dome.|
|القرية||Alqueria||Means: the village.|
|قرطاجنة الخلفاء||Cartagena||From this city is Hazim al-Qartajanni حازم القرطاجني a reknown poet and linguist|
|قرطاجنة الجزيرة||San Roque||Means: Cartagena of the Island|
|قرطبة||Cordova||This was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate, and the golden age of the Moors in Spain, culminating with al-Mansur المنصور بن أبي عامر|
|قلعة ايوب||Calatayud||Means: Castle of Ayub. Named after Ayub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi أيوب بن حبيب اللخمي a cousin of Abdul Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusair, and his successor as ruler of Andalus.|
|قلعة رباح||Calatrava||Means: Castle of Rabah. An chivalric order was named after this city.|
|قلعة بني سعيد||Alcala La Real||Means: Castle of Bani Said (sons of Said).|
|قلعة الجحر||Calahorra||Means: Castle of Stone.|
|قلعة النهر||Alcala De Henares||A suburb of Madrid.|
|قصر أبي دانس||Alcacer||Means: Palace of Abu Danis|
|القصر||Alqezar||Means: The palace|
|قمارش||Comares||The historiographers, Ibn Khaldun, Al-Qalqashandi and Al-Maqarri mention that place when the struggle between Yahya ibn Idris and Irdis ibn Yahya ensued in the fifth century A.H (around 440s). Ibn Al Khatib in his history of Granada mentions Ibn Lu'lu'ah أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن يوسف بن محمد السكوني ابن اللؤلؤة as being from Comares, and was her khatib (sermon giver on Friday), as well as a poet. He died in the plague of 750 A.H. There is also a palace built in the Alhambra complex by the Nasrid dynasty is also called Comares.|
|كتندة قتندة||A town in the vicinity of Granada. الكتندي hails from it.|
|قنطيش||This was a place near Cordova, where a battle in the civil war between the rival Caliphs, al-Mahdi المهدي and al-Musta'in المستعين in 400 A.H.|
|قمة المنصور||Pico del Moro Almanzor||A mountain in Spain named after al-Mansur ibn Abi Aamir|
|كهوف المنصورة||Cuevas de Almanzora||إبن أمية Aben Humeya (1520-1569), the leader of the Alpujarras uprising, seiged this city in the 16th century.|
|Consuegra||A battle between Almoravid general Muhammad ibn Al Hajj al-Lamtuni محمد بن الحاج اللمتوني and the Spaniards was fought in 15 August 1097 C.E. The Almoravids won, and El Cid's son was killed in this battle.|
|طرطوشة||Tortosa||From here, Abu Bakr al-Tartushi, أبو بكر الطرطوشي (b.1059 - d. 1127 C.E.) the famous faqih who lived, wrote and taught inAlexandria, Egypt. Together with al-Ghazali, his fatwa against thedivided and infighting Taifa rulers after the fall of Toledo wasinstrumental for Yusuf Ibn Tashufin to take over Andalusia.|
|طريف||Tarifa||Named after Tarif ibn Malik طريف بن مالك who was a commander in Tariq ibn Ziad's army that conquered al-Andalus.|
|طريانة||Triana||A neighborhood of Seville, across the river that was connected with pontoon bridges. From it, Rodrigo de Triana, who was the first on the Columbus boats to see land. He seems to have been of Muslim/Moorish descent, since he moved to North Africa and reverted to Islam.|
|طلوشة||Tolosa||See Las Navas de Tolosa العقاب|
|طلمنكة||Salamanca||This is an older synonym for شلمنقة (Salamanca). Many people with the name al-Talamanki الطلمنكي are known, most famous of whom are Abu Omar Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Talamanki (340 A.H. - 429 A.H.) أبو عمر أحمد بن محمد المعافري الطلمنكي المقرئ who specialized in Quran orthography, recitation, linguistics|
|طلبيرة||Talavera de la Reina|
|طليطلة||Toledo||This was the first major city to be retaken by the Christian kings. Its fall signalled the slow decline in Muslim rule in Spain, though it took four centuries to complete.|
|طرخونة طراكونة تاراغونا||Tarragona|
|لبلة||Neibla||This city is close to Mont Lisham منت ليشم where Ibn Hazm إبن حزم was in exile most of his literary life.|
|لشبونة أشبونة||Lisbon Lisboa|
|لوشة||Loja||The famous author Lisan al-Din Ibn al-Khatib لسان الدين إبن الخطيب has his roots in that town.|
|ليسانة أليسانة||Lucena||This was a Jewish town. The famous philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) إبن رشد was exiled for sometime to this town.|
|العقاب||Las Navas de Tolosa||A major battle was fought in this place in 1212 C.E. The Christian coalition under Alfonso XIII defeated Almohads|
|المرية||Almeria||This port was founded by Muslims, and served as a main port for Andalus.|
|مرتلة ميرتلة مارتلة||Mertola||Abu Imran al-Marteli ابو عمران المارتلي (d. 604 A.H.) is from here.|
|مربيطر||Sagunto -Murviedro||Hannibal's siege of Saguntum in 219 BCE started the Second Punic War. The name under Arab rule (Murbiter) was derived from muri veteres ("Ancient Walls")..|
|مرسية||Murcia||Built by Abdul Rahman II. One person from Murcia, Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi أبو العباس المرسي is buried in Alexandria, Egypt, with a mosque named after him.|
|مجريط مجريل||Madrid||Built by the Ummayad Emir Muhammad ibn Abdul Rahman. Abu Maslama al-Majriti أبو مسلمة المجريطي is a famous person from Madrid|
|المدور||Almodovar Del Rio, Almodovar del Campo|
|مدينة سالم||Medinaceli||Means: City of Salim. Named after its founder, Salim ibn Warghamal al-Masmudi سالم بن ورغمال المصمودي a Berber leader during the inital Arab conquest. In this city, al-Mansur ibn Abi 'Amer died during a military campaign.|
|المائدة||Almeida||This means "The dining table". The name goes back to a relic that Iberian Christians claimed to be the dining table of King Solomon. It was taken as spoils of war by Arabs and sent to the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus. See our separate article on this relic.|
|منت ليشم||This was the country estate of Ibn Hazm إبن حزم the famous polymath, and the place where he was exiled and died. Close to Niebla, off Santa Maria.|
|مورور||Morón||This city saw a Berber revolution in 2nd century A.H.|
|المنزل||Almansil||The stopping place, for example, for caravans on a travel route. A hotel on the way.|
|المنارة||Almenara||The lighthouse, or the minaret of the mosque|
|وادي آش||Guadix||All names prefixed by Guad- are derived from the Arabic word وادي Wadi which means river or valley of a. Several Wadi Ashis الوادي آشي are known.|
|وادي الذئب||Guadalupe||This could be a compounded name, part Arabic (Guade=Wadi), and part Spanish (Lupe=Wolf). Or it could be that the Spanish world Lupe is a corruption of the Arabic al-The'b (Wolf).|
|وادي القصر||Guadalcázar||River of the palace|
|وادي الرمكة||Guadarranque||Mare river|
|وادي القط||Guadalquitton||Cat river|
|وادي البقر||Guadalbacar||Cattle river|
|وادي التين وادي الطين||Guadalertin||River of Figs, or River of Mud|
|وادي الرمان||Guarroman||Pomegranate river|
|ولبة أونبة||Huelva||Ibn al-Qasir al-Walbi إبن القصير الولبي (d. 508 A.H.) who was one of the secertaries of Yusuf Ibn Tashufin, is from this town, as well as the Vizier Abu Bakr al-Walbi أبو بكر الأونبي who has a commentary سمط اللآلئ في شرح الأمالي لأبي علي القالي|
Links and Resources
- Mohamed Ibn Abdul Mon'im al-Himyari محمد بن عبد المنعم الحميري wrote a comprehensive geography of Andalus, published in صفة جزيرة الأندلس and in الروض المعطار في خبر الأقطار. The book is available on the internet in several places, among which this one is the most accessible.
- List of some Spanish cities and their histories at Islam Set web site.
- The Languages of Europe: A Cultural Introduction by Joseph E. Garreau.
- Adel Said Bishtawi has a list of names and places in Andalus, in PDF.
- Geonames: Spain has a lot of useful etymological info.
- Historical Markers by Ian Meadows. In Saudi Aramco World.
- Legado Andalusi has some descriptions of cities in Arabic.
- A list of toponyms of Arabic origins in some areas of Aragon: Zaragoza, Teruel and Huesca.
- al-Qalqashandi القلقشندي, in his Subh al-A'sha صبح الأعشى , lists many of these cities
- Unrelated to cities and places, Behind the Name: Spanish Names has a list of Spanish names and their origins. A few of them are Arabic.
S. Strauch (not verified)
Looking for an Arabic/Spanish place nameFri, 2008/02/29 - 09:08
I am translating a book from Arabic to English that deals with the Muslim conquest of Spain and it speaks of a place which the Arab author calls (transliterated): "Ashtooreesh". What would the name of that place be in Spanish?
أشتوريش = AsturiasFri, 2008/02/29 - 10:19
This would be Pelayo's Asturias, written as أشتوريش in Arabic.
See also Arabic Encyclopedia article on Asturias and Nafh Al Teeb by Al Maqarri نفح الطيب عن غصن الأندلس الرطيب - المقري.
Anonymous (not verified)
ToulouseWed, 2009/03/11 - 16:33
The Ummayads conquered france so what is the name of Toulouse in Arabic
Not "conquered"Wed, 2009/03/11 - 16:39
They did not conquer France. They had some raids and battles, and the Ummayyads ended up losing.
The name for Toulouse is Talosha or Tolosha طلوشة.
It is mentioned in several geographic workds, such as Nuzhat Al Mushtaq, by al-Idrisi (here and here).
Anonymous (not verified)
Santiago,GaliciaSat, 2009/03/14 - 07:16
do arabs believe in Saint James, and why did they called him sant Yakob
NoSat, 2009/03/14 - 11:32
No, the Muslims do not believe in Saint James the same way Catholics do. It is forbidden to pray to anyone other than God, but contrary to Islamic teaching some areas have saints which people pray to.
As for calling him Sant Yakub, it seems to be how it sounded from the Spaniards at the time.
Sant = Saint, and Ya'kub is the Arabic/Hebrew for Jacob.
Over the centuries it was changed from "Saint Yakub" -> Santyakub -> Santiago.
Hescham Sabri (not verified)
please ad Ibn Malik as he is important tooTue, 2010/08/24 - 10:58
super your work is good we need more of this :
if you want to snorkel in egypt thnk about marsa alam
surely you this genious andalusian from jaen who put the arabian grammar in 1000 verses : alfyyat ibn malik
Houmam (not verified)
The Franks And The UmayyadsFri, 2010/11/19 - 12:52
if the umayyads didn`t fail with the franks they would have the chance to conquest even germany and the netherlands with france
Daniel Masters (not verified)
Granda Place Names in ArabicWed, 2012/08/01 - 21:12
Thanks Khalid for all the information you have made available. I was wondering if you knew of a site that gave the Arabic equivalents of place names in Granada. In articles on Granada, place names are given that are Spanish approximations of the actual Arabic names and ar ein most cases, unrecognizable. Thanks.
NoWed, 2012/08/01 - 21:20
No, I don't know of a site for that. Wikipedia may have some.
Try to post some here as a comment and I will try to find the Arabic for them.